In the profession of art conservation, tools are most often adopted or adapted from other fields. Pictured here is a selection of tools and common objects used for filling losses or voids in the original paint layer.
Pigmented microcrystalline wax (the red-brown material in the tin) is applied into the loss with a small spatula (foreground on the left). This much-used tool is hand-made for this purpose.
The wine cork is sometimes utilized to level wax fills; the panty hose fabric is used to texture and buff the wax. Texture is imparted into the new wax fill with a variety of materials and techniques, including dental tools, bits of cloth, or a blunt needle.